Historický obzor

Volume 29, 2018
Number 1/2

Martin Šubrt (Ustav světovych dějin FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; subrt117@seznam.cz)
British-Canadian Relations in the Years 1931–1940
, pp. 2–12.
Abstract
This article analyses the development of political relations between Great Britain and Canada in the era between the Statute of Westminster in both countries (1931) and the signing of the defensive agreement in Ogdensburg between Canada and the United States of America (August 1940). The article discusses the attitude of both countries to the key events and developments of the period: The Great Depression, the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa (1932), the Imperial Conference in London (1937) and the threat of another world war. When the Second World War started in September 1939, Canada joined the war on the side of its mother country. The rapid changes, however, had made Canada move closer to the United States of America in the economic and military spheres.

Keywords
Great Britain; Canada; William Lyon Mackenzie King; British-Canadian Relations; Canadian-American Relations; Commonwealth; Statute of Westminster; Ogdensburg Agreement

Roman Vondra (roman.vondra@centrum.cz)
Greatness and Fall of Spain in the Time of Count-Duke of Olivares
, pp. 12–25.
Abstract
The study deals with the life and career of the Spanish politician Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel Ribera y Velasco de Tovar, Count of Olivares and Duke of San Lúcar la Mayor (1587–1645).
Keywords
Castile; Aragon; Olivares; Spain; Habsburg Dynasty; 17th Century

Viktor Janák (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, janakv@khv.zcu.cz)
František Mikuláš Mlčoch – the Political Chameleon
, pp. 25–35.
Abstract
In its introductory section this study provides basic information about the person of František Mikuláš Mlčoch, the period of his childhood, growing up in a military academy and finally his activities in the Czechoslovak Legions. The body of the study is focused on the political life of F. M. Mlčoch. It will focus on Mlčoch’s years in various political parties, especially on his inclination to the NSDAP and the subsequent establishment of his Socialist Czech Workers and Peasants Party. The thesis will also focus on the influence of F. M. Mlčoch and the National Socialist Czech Workers
and Peasants Party within the period of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Finally, the study will pay attention to the court process with F. M. Mlčoch.

Keywords
František Mikuláš Mlčoch; National Socialist Czech Workers and Peasants Party; Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; Collaboration

Michal Zourek (Metropolitní univerzita Praha, Dubečská 900/10, 100 31 Praha, Strašnice; GEHIGUE/Instituto Ravignani, Universidad de Buenos Aires. 25 de mayo 221, 2do piso, Buenos Aires (1002), Argentina; zourek@centrum.cz)
Gabriel García Márquez and his Reportages from behind the Iron Curtain
, pp. 36–43.
Abstract
The study analyses the written testimonies left by the Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez describing his two journeys behind the Iron Curtain that he made in 1955 and 1957. These testimonies are interpreted in the context of the journeys of Latin American intellectuals to Eastern Europe as well as of the author‘s artistic and ideological direction. The feelings that real socialism left in him led Márquez to a definitive dismiss of the idea that the Soviet model might be a model to follow. The set of eleven reportages represents an ironic criticism of the Soviet system. However, the weight
of negative details is eased by frequent use of humour. This fact, together with the extraordinary narrative talent of the author, makes the articles timeless. This study aims to popularise these articles in the Czech context and at the same time to point out some of the previously unknown aspects of cultural relations of the Central and Eastern Europe with Latin America.

Keywords
Gabriel García Márquez; Communism; Intellectuals; Eastern Europe; Czechoslovakia; Soviet Union; Poland; Hungary; East Germany


Volume 29, 2018
Number 3/4


Jiří Chalupa (Katedra romanistiky, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Mateja Bela, Tajovského 51, Banská Bystrica, Slovenská republika, 974 01, jchalu­paol@seznam.cz)
Several Observations on the Catalan Nationalism, pp. 50–62.
Abstract

The article tries to examine the roots of Catalan nationa­lism and the path that has led the nationalists in Cata­lonia from the search for their national identity through a cultural renaissance in the mid­nineteenth century to the current situation in which already begins to clearly predominate an open separatism. Applying some theo­retical frameworks (e.g. Hobsbawm, Hroch, Eriksen, Kohn, etc.), we try to analyze the main phases of politi­cal nationalism in Catalonia: from the federalism through the high bourgeoisie nationalism and then the moderate left phase to the modern movement for autonomy. The core of the text revolves around the problem with possi­ble almost universal projection, i. e. the transformation of the rather moderate autonomic campaign into a radical independence mobilization, a process that has occurredwith surprising speed and intensity in the last ten years.
Keywords

Nation; National Identity; Nationalism; Catalonia; Spain

Tereza Laipertová (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, laiperto@khv.zcu.cz)
Czech Cinematography in the Years 1896–1939, pp. 63–74.
Abstract

The work of the film industry has been a source of entertainment from its beginnings. The development of cinematography in the Czech lands was initially in the same way as in other European countries, the first works were silent films, from which the beginning of the 1930s began to sound film. During this period, Czech cinematography gained slightly from other European countries, as professional film studios equipped with state ­of ­the­ art technology began to be built here. At the end of the 1930s, great changes took place for Czech cinematography, which caused the occupation of the Nazis, who were aware of the power of this media and began to subordinate it to their needs.
Keywords
Bohemia; Moravia; Cinema; 19–20th Century


Tereza Hmírová (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, hmirovat@khv.zcu.cz)
The Comparison of the Displacement of Czechs from Borderland 1938–1939 and the Post-war Transfer of Germans from Czechoslovakia. Part I
, pp. 74–90.
Abstract

After the World War I was founded the Czechoslovak Republic where Sudeten Germans created a quarter of total population. Their coexistence was not smooth and their variances culminated during the September 1938 and through a signing of Munich Agreement. Before that Czechs, Jews and democratic Germans started to leave the Czechoslovak borderland where they became offers of a violence and boycott of members of the Sudeten German Party. These people came to an inland of the second Czech­Slovak Republic which became a part of German Reich in March 1939. The Republic dealt with a help for refugees during this period. When the World War II began an exile government under the leadership of Edvard Beneš tried to gain a decision of powers about a transfer of Sudeten Germans from a renewed Czecho­slovak Republic after the war.

Keywords
Migration; Czech­German Relations; Czechoslovak Borderland; Munich Agreement


Volume 29, 2018
Number 5/6


Jan Malý (Ústav světových dějin, FF UK, Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1, maly.usti@gmail.com)
London and Angevin Kings of England
, pp. 98–102.
Abstract

Today, London is the capital of the United Kingdom and also one the biggest and most important cities of Europe. In the Middle Ages, London had to struggle with Winchester, traditional Anglo-Saxon administrative centre for the superior position in the kingdom of Norman and Angevin kings. Gradually, London became more and more important and when almost all vital offices were transferred from Winchester to London, it became a real royal capital. The importance of
London for the kings of England was also in the symbolic and ceremonial sense, since it was the place of royal coronations and later it became also one of the most important burial place. During the Angevin era, London also witnessed many important events, which occurred there such as the deposition of Chancellor William Longchamp in 1191 or the rebellion of barons in 1215. This article focuses on the development of the city and the involvement of London in important affairs of the Angevin period.
Keywords

London; Angevins; King John; Richard Lionheart; Henry II; Winchester

Martin Nekola (marnekola@gmail.com)
The History of Czech Community in South Africa
, pp. 102–110.
Abstract

The article deals with the history of Czech community in South Africa. It focuses on migration waves, interesting personalities, compatriot associations as well as periodicals. It also refers to the internment of Czech Jews in the island of Mauritius during the World War Two.
Keywords

Compatriots; Exile; Migration; Apartheid; Racism; Jews

Tereza Laipertová (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, laiperto@khv.zcu.cz)
Czech Cinematography in the Years 1939–1945
, pp. 111–124.
Abstract

The work of the film industry has been a source of entertainment from its beginnings. The development of cinematography in the Czech lands was initially in the same way as in other European countries, the first works were silent films, from which the beginning of the 1930s began to sound film. During this period, Czech cinematography gained slightly from other European countries, as professional film studios equipped with state-of-the-art technology began to be built here. At the end of the 1930s, great changes took place for Czech cinematography, which caused the occupation of the Nazis, who were well aware of the power of this media and began to subordinate it to their needs.
Keywords

Bohemia; Moravia; Cinema; Actor; Movies; Nazis

Tereza Hmírová (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, hmirovat@khv.zcu.cz)
The Comparison of the Displacement of Czechs from Borderland 1938–1939 and the Post-war Transfer of Germans from Czechoslovakia. Part II
, pp. 124–138.
Abstract

During the World War II Czechoslovak exile government tried to gain an agreement of powers with a transfer of Germans from a renewed Czechoslovak Republic after the war. Czech people began to expel the Germans in May 1945 after the end of war – it was a wild expulsion. The powers decided to agree with a transfer in August. The organized transfer began in January 1946 and ended in the autumn. Except this migration the study dealt with a comparison of transfer of Germans and displacement of Czechs 1938–1939 and with a question of a collective guilt, too.
Keywords

Migration; Czech-German Relations; World War II; Transfer; Comparison; Czechoslovakia; Collective Guilt


Volume 29, 2018
Number 7/8


Martin Nejedlý (Ústav českých dějin, Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1, martin.nejedly@ff.cuni.cz)
Medieval Novel as a Source of Knowledge for the Historian
, pp. 146–154.
Abstract

This paper is a general and interdisciplinary analysis of Roman de Renart from 1170–1240. This is the traditional title for a corpus of texts that do not form a coherent story. These stories are rhymed compositions called branches. They were composed by three generations of learned authors. These narrations are connected among themselves by the main haracter – Renart the Fox. There are more animals such as a wolf or a bear, fox’s enemies. There are stupid humans as well in the story. The Animals form a hierarchically based society under a rule of a lion, their king. Renard, a bandit baron from woods, is a type of trickster hero, who can outfox everyone in this hierarchy. Roman de Renart could be seen as a satire of a contemporary society based on the martial and church power.
Keywords

Fox; Medieval Novel; France; Middle French; Animals; Reign; Forest


Jan Červenka (Katedra historie, Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci, tř. Svobody 671/8, 779 00 Olomouc, CervenkaJ@seznam.cz)
Tolerance out of Necessity, Tolerance out of Indifference or Supra-confessional Christianity? The Common
Good and its Influence on the Coexistence in the post-Hussite Bohemia
, pp. 154–161.
Abstract

This article is trying to present and briefly evaluate three main historiographical concepts describing the nature of coexistence at the end of the medieval period – tolerance out of necessity, tolerance out of indifference and supra confessional Christianity. After this introduction, a new view which sees coexistence as a part of the common good – bonum commune, based on the notions of Winfried Eberhard and theory of functional tolerance by Cary Nederman, is presented. The concept of common good is a medieval concept of political theory which was widely used even in political practice, which enables to avoid implantation of new artificial concepts, often leading to anachronism. One of the advantages of this concept is its continuous use and dependency on older philosophical traditions which have been already recognized in various other areas of utraquist thinking. A consensual nature of the common also provides a solid
explanation of various changes which occurred in the
post-Hussite Bohemia. The tolerance as a part of the common good is not based on the rights of the individual as the modern liberal concept but on the notion of communal functionality. The common good also put stress on secular, lay principles of coexistence which played a major role in the Bohemian kingdom. This theory did not reject but rather tries to incorporate three older conceptions and explain some of their discrepancies.
Keywords

Tolerance out of Necessity; Tolerance from Indifference; Supra-confessional Christianity; Common Good; Utraquism

Jakub Havlíček (Katedra sociologie, andragogiky a kulturní antropologie, Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, tř. Svobody 26, 779 00, Olomouc, jakub.havlicek@upol.cz)
Chinese Immigration to the United States of America
, pp. 161–174.
Abstract

The paper focuses on the history of Chinese immigration to the United States of America. It deals primaril with factors of migration from the point of view of the United States, with various aspects that stimulated the migration but also with law restrictions and other factors that limited the immigration of the Chinese to U.S. The paper summarizes historical, political and economic circumstances of trans-Pacific interests of the United States. Reviewing theoretical approaches to factors of migration, the paper identifies two basic groups of factors: socio-economic and political-ideological, the former including e.g. the need for cheap labor force, the latter including e.g. the concept of “manifest destiny”. The paper divides the immigration of the Chinese to the U.S. into three periods: 1) from the beginnings to 1882, 2) from 1882 to 1965, and 3) from 1965 up to the present.

Keywords
Chinese; Citizenship; Discrimination; Immigration; Push-pull Model; United States

Jaroslav Valkoun - Jakub Mazanec (Ústav světových dějin, Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Nám.
Jana Palacha 2, 116 38 Praha 1, jaroslav.valkoun@ff.cuni.cz; jakmazanec@gmail.com)
The British on the Nile and Modernization of the Egyptian Irrigation
, pp. 174–180.
Abstract

This article analyses the problems of British attempts at modernization of the Egyptian irrigation systems on the Nile River in the 19th century. Egyptian agriculture was dependent on regular watering from the Nile which was determined by uncertain rainfall, this dependence limited the production of profitable crops like sugarcane or cotton. After the invasion in 1882, the British represented by Lord Cromer, the Agent and Consul-General of Her Majesty in Egypt, continued in modernization effort started by French engineers in Muhammad Ali’s service and supported Nile hydraulic projects. These projects, like Delta Barrage or Aswan Dam allowed the increase of cultivated land, brought higher revenues for Egyptian Treasury and also helped to satisfy British commercial interests. During the “British era on the Nile”, a complete modernization of Egyptian irrigation was proceeded.
Keywords

Egyptian Irrigation System; Egypt; British Colonialism; Hydraulic Engineers; Nile; Egyptian Agriculture

Marek Šmíd (Ústav dějin křesťanského umění, Katolická teologická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Thákurova 3, Praha 6, 160 00, smidma@seznam.cz)
Diplomatic Relations of the Holy See and Austria in the Years 1918–1938
, pp. 180–186.
Abstract

The study deals with the diplomatic relations of the Holy See and Austria in the years 1918–1938. They are analysed at the background of events of 1920s and 1930s. Emphasizing the Vatican archives, they in particular concern the reports of the apostolic nuncios of Vienna to Rome, which described the changing politicalreligious relations and the country’s approaching to authoritarian regime in the 1930th in full details. It primarily reflects the background of the corporative state and its leading personalities of Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg in the interwar period with the focus on
the 1930s which reveal full intimacy between Austrian regime and Catholicism.
Keywords

Vatican; Austria; Ignaz Seipel; Engelbert Dollfuss; Kurt Schuschnigg


Volume 29, 2018
Number 9/10


Aleš Skřivan st. – Aleš Skřivan ml. (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, skrivan2@khv.zcu.cz; alesskrivan@hotmail.com)
The Austrian Lloyd Steamship Company. Establishment, Initial Functioning and Problems
, pp. 194–201.
Abstract
Steamship Company, the second section of the Austrian Lloyd, was founded by representatives of the insurance companies, banks and private entities in Trieste in 1836. The aim of this company was to develop transport to Mediterranean ports and later to remote overseas ports. The authors of this study analyzed the immediately circumstances of the establishment of the steamship company, involvement and influence of the banking house Rothschild and the initial functioning of the company. As for the development of the company, among other things, the paper focuses on the impact of the crisis 1837/38, loans taken by Lloyd in 1839 and 1845, purchase of the First Danube Steamships Co. ships and on the efforts of Lloyd to take part in the transport of mail between Great Britain and India. Finally, the circumstances at the beginning of the second phase in the development of the Steamship Company of Austrian Lloyd in the 1850s were assessed.

Keywords
Steamship Company; Austria, Austrian Llyod; 19th Century

Dita Rusová (ditarusova@icloud.com)
Queens at the Crusades: Eleanor of Aquitaine and Margaret of Provence and its Reflexion in the Contemporary Chronicles
, pp. 202–212.
Abstract

This study deal with activities of two French queens, Eleanor of Aquitaine and Margaret of Provence during the Crusades, by means of chronicles. Firstly, it outlines the role that women played in the crusade movement and how their position changed in the Holy Land. Subsequently, it describes the involvement of Eleanor of Aquitaine during the Second Crusade and Margaret of Provence during the Seventh Crusade. It compares the records of different chroniclers to answer the question, how was the opportunity for the women in the Middle Age to prove successful in the area primarily determined to man.
Keywords

Eleanor of Aquitaine; Margaret of Provence; French Queens; Gender; Crusades

Martin Nejedlý (Ústav českých dějin, Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1, martin.nejedly@ff.cuni.cz)
Medieval Novel as a Source of Knowledge for the Historian (Part two)
, pp. 212–222.
Abstract

The second part of the interdisciplinary study about Roman de Renart (1170–1240) concerns the mirroring of hierarchical construction of the medieval society in this literary work. On specific exemples it demonstrates namely the role of food and horses as signs of a codified system. It also reflects upon the distinctive situation of the ambivalent hero who sometimes uses ruse and smartness for his own entertainment. It is a rather rare type of rebellion in the medieval literature. At the end the study describes transformations of the romanesque material about renart the fox during centuries, with a special accent on Czech writers (Kláce, Těsnohlídek, Lada).
Keywords
Renart the Fox; Medieval Romance; Tradition; Czech Literature; Long Duration

Miroslav Beneš (Historický ústav, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Hradec Králové, Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové, miroslav.benes@uhk.cz)
The Position of Ireland within William Cecil’s Unification Visions
, pp. 223–232.
Abstract

The study deals with the introduction to Anglo-Irish relations in the age of the reign of English Queen Elizabeth I from the dynasty of the Tudors, whose closest adviser, William Cecil, came (between 1558–1560) with a conception that should have brought England out of the international crisis and permit the unification of the British Isles under the rule of single ruler. Contrary to the traditional interest of historians, this study differs by focusing on the position of Ireland within William Cecil’s unification visions. The study also includes a presentation of the state of the source base and the state of the current research related to Anglo-Irish relations during the reign of Tudor dynasty.
Keywords
William Cecil; Anglo-Irish Relationship; 16th Century; Ireland; Elizabeth I

Marcela Hennlichová (Ústav světových dějin, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Karlova, Nám. J. Palacha 2, 116 38, hennlichova.m@seznam.cz)
The Young Turk Movement and the Ottoman Empire in the last Third of the 19th Century
, pp. 232–238.
Abstract

The aim of this study is the analysis of the activities of Young Turks and their impact on the Ottoman Empire of 19th
century. The study pays attention to the development of the Young Turk movement in between 1902 and 1908 and reveals the history of the Ottoman Empire before the counter coup d’état of 1909.

Keywords
Young Turks; Abdülhamit II; Ottoman Empire; Constitution

Volume 29, 2018
Number 11/12


Martin Nejedlý (Ústav českých dějin, Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy, Nám. Jana Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1, martin.nejedly@ff.cuni.cz)
Martin Le Franc, the Champion of Women, the Enemy of the Hussites
, pp. 242–251.
Abstract

The composition Champion des dames (1442) was famous for the mention of witchcraft and unplanned marginal illumination in the manuscript from 1451, which the author, Martin Le Franc, gave to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. However, the poem also contains attacks against the Czech Reformation and its chief representatives, Jan Hus and Jeroným Pražský. This study attempts to evaluate the composition in the context of the poet’s life and the political commitment of this advocate of the Basle Council. The verses of Martin Le Franc represent an important contribution
to the medieval controversy over the role of women in history and society of the time. The author acts as an advocate of the ladies and girls, defends them against accusations of heresy and seduction of men and appreciates their irreplaceable role in the family and in artistic creation.

Keywords
Women; Gender; Medieval Poetry; Allegory; Witchcraft; Hussitism

Dagmar Petišková (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, Valdštejnská 161/20, 118 00, Praha 1, petiskovad@gmail.com)
Lucidarius as an Intermediary of Medieval Knowledge
, pp. 252–260.
Abstract

The study acquaints the reader with the history of the work Lucidarius, which originates from the Latin theological tract
Elucidarium by Honorius Augustodunensis from the end of the 11th century. It deals with the conception of the German
Lucidarius, which was created as one of the first medieval works in the national language at the end of the 12th century and is considered to be the first German-language encyclopedia. This study presents the Lucidarius as an originally produced compilation created via the translation and adaptation of several Latin treatises from the fields of theology, philosophy, cosmology, geography, and history. In the Czech environment, Lucidář, translated from German, appears at the latest in the mid-15th century and is a work that enjoyed the interest of lower classes of readers until as late as the early 19th century.

Keywords
Middle Ages; Elucidarium; Lucidarius; Lucidář; Translation Literature; National Language

Roman Kodet (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, kodet@khv.zcu.cz)
Introduction to the History of the Everyday Life of the Warrior Class in Premodern Japan
, pp. 260–268.
Abstract

The military class of pre-modern Japan – samurai – created a rich urban culture in the 17th century. Huge castle cities were established in that time, which changed the everyday life of Japanese warriors. From the land-nobility, samurai became the inhabitants of cities. Due to this change, their daily life altered. They developed new ways of housing, amusement and art. The Edo Period was thus an era of flourishing culture and arts. This article deals with the question of life of the warrior class in premodern Japan. It focuses on the questions of everyday activities, free time, standard of
living and entertainment of the samurai. Its goal is to create an overview of the life of samurai in order to promote further research of this topic in Czech Republic.
Keywords

Japan; Premodern Period; Samurai; Culture; Art; Edo Period

Jan Hladík (Katedra hospodářských dějin Národohospodářské fakulty VŠE v Praze, nám. Winstona Churchilla 1938/4, 130 67 Praha 3, jan.hladik@vse.cz)
Housing Policy of the Czechoslovak Republic in the 1920s
, pp. 268–279.
Abstract

This paper focuses on the legal-institutional framework formation of the interwar czechoslovak housing policy in 1920s with regard to the housing market development and the needs of the population. Czechoslovak housing policy was, from the outset, very restrictive in terms of restricting apartment owners rights, which included rigorous regulation of rents. However, the longterm goal was the gradual and sensitive dismantling of regulation aimed at setting up the market environment in the housing market. To encourage the apartment construction affordable for the broader population, the
state has supported housing supply in various ways. Housing policy in the 1920s can be considered as relatively successful, though with remaining considerable room for improvement. Author’s conclusions are based on period studies and statistical reports research. Some unpublished sources are also used to illustrate problematic situation on the housing market.
Keywords

Housing Policy; Housing Distress; Rent Regulation; Housing Affordability

David Fronk (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14, fronk@khv.zcu.cz)
The USA on the Way to the Modern Society
, pp. 279–287.
Abstract

This article analyses post-war development of the American society which should have changed its shape and image in its time completely. In the background of the beginning of the Cold War the inner policy of the democratic empire was rigid and this unique atmosphere created the phenomenon of McCarthyism. This era favoured the creation of many populists whose words effectively woke fear of almost anything strange and made it easy to mark something as un-American and suspicious. All problem of the American post-war society should have been covered by shiny, conflictfree,
white culture of consumerism. This study also shows the inception of minor features which started the necessary process on its way to modern and liberal society.

Keywords
American Society; American Culture; the USA; McCarthyism; Racial Inequality