Historický obzor

Volume 27, 2016
Number 1/2


Marcela Šubrtová (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, Nám. J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; Marcelina.s@seznam.cz)

The Economic Situation of the Ottoman Empire in the Tanzimât Era and the Foreign Loan Policy (1839–1876/1881), pp. 2–9.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature and deals with the problem of the economic situation of the Ottoman Empire in the years 1839–1876/1881 and analyses the foreign loan policy.
Keywords: Ottoman Empire; Tanzimât Era; Foreign Loan Policy; Great Britain; France

Oldřich Ženka

All Leaders of the Franks Who Colluded against the Emperor… The Deposition of Charles the Fat in Trier in Autumn 887,pp. 10–16.
Abstract

The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and deals with the problem of the deposition of Charles the Fat in Trier in the year 887. The author has tried to prove the fact that the deposition of Charles the Fat in the year 887 did not mean the establishment of the medieval German or rather French state.
Keywords: Charles the Fat; Franks; the Year 887; Kingdom of the East Franks

Dana Jakšičová (gelma@email.cz)

“The Sisters Act”. Life Story of Three Monastic Teachers, pp. 17–27.
Abstract

The study is based on unpublished sources and the specialized literature. The author deals with the life story of three monastic teachers in the 20th century (Čestmíra Pešatová, Judita Kosová, and Lavoslava Vrbová) and analyses their pedagogical activity on a monastic school.
Keywords: Monastic Teachers; 20th Century; Monastic School

Eva Rašková (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; Raskova.Eva@seznam.cz)

The German Political Activism in Czechoslovakia in the Perception of the Austrian Legation in Prague in 1920–1925, pp. 27–36.
Abstract
The aim of this study, which is based on the unpublished sources from the Austrian State Archives, is the analysis of the perception of the nascent German Activism in Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Legation in Prague from 1920 to 1925.
Keywords: Austrian Legacy in Prague; Czechoslovakia; German Minority; Political Activism


František Emmert (The Institute of State and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Národní 117/18, 110 00 Praha; frantisek.emmert@ilaw.cas.cz)

Nazi Germany Citizenship at the occupied Czech lands, 1938–1945, pp. 36–42.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and analyses the problem of the Nazi Germany Citizenship at the occupied Czech lands in the years 1938–1945. The author has dealt with dual citizenship for the Germans from the occupied Czech lands.
Keywords: Nazi Germany; Czech Lands; 1938–1945; Dual Citizenship


Number 3/4


Michal Wanner (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, Milady Horákové 133, 166 21 Praha 6; michal.wanner@mvcr.cz)

Cape Colony under the Administration of the United East Indian Company 1652–1795. Part I: The Origin of the Cape Colony 1652–1700, pp. 50–61.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature and deals with the problem of the Cape Colony under the administration of the United East Indian Company. It analyses the problem of the origin of the colony in the years 1652–1700 (the growth of population or the administration of the colony).
Keywords: Cape Colony; the United East Indian Company; the Republic of the Seven United Provinces; Racial Ideology

Markéta Kadlecová

Personality of Henry VIII in Film, pp. 61–64.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature deals with the problem of personality of the English King Henry VIII in film. The author concludes that the perception of the King in film has changed in the 20th century and remains constantly an important topic for artistic adaptation.
Keywords: Henry VIII; Anne Boleyn; Film; the Tudors

Aleš Skřivan, st. – Aleš Skřivan, ml. (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; skrivan2@khv.zcu.cz; alesskrivan@hotmail.com)

Chinese Crisis 1897–1898. Great Britain at the Fight for the Railway Concessions, pp. 64–78.
Abstract

The struggle for railway concessions was very important factor influencing the China crisis 1897/98. As to the railways’ construction, Great Britain played leading role since the very beginnig (Shanghai – Woosung Railway, built 1874/76). The founding of Imperial Railways of China and the support of mighty viceroy Li Hongzhang had extraordinary importance for the construction of railways. The real partition of China into the spheres of influence of Great Powers brought some limits to the British activities. The rivalry between Great Britain and Russia affected the construction of the North China Railway, likewise the controversy between Great Britain and Germany left its marks on the financing and the construction of the railway connecting Shanghai with Nanjing. Despite of varions obstacles, the British „railway policy“ reached its aims.
Keywords: Great Powers Policy in China; China Crisis 1897/98; Railway Concessions; Rivalry between Great Britain and Germany

Michaela Mikešová (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; mikesova.michaela@email.cz)

Deutschböhmen – the German Irredenta in the Czechoslovak Republic, in 1918–1919, pp. 78–88.
Abstract
The aim of this study, which is based on the specialized literature and unpublished sources from the State District Archives in Litoměřice, is the analysis of the German Irredenta in the Czechoslovak Republic, in 1918–1919, primarily of events from March 4, 1919.
Keywords: Deutschböhmen; the German Irredenta; German Minority; the Czechoslovak Republic; 1918–1919


Number 5/6


Veronika Krištofová (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; krisve@students.zcu.cz)
The Japanese-Korean Relations 1868–1910
, pp. 98–109.
Abstract
The study, which is based on unpublished sources from the National Archives in London and the specialized literature, deals with the problem of the Japanese-Korean relations in the years 1868–1910. It analyses the way to the Japanese occupation of Korea in the year 1910.
Keywords: Japan; Korea; Foreign Policy; International Relations

Jan Kilián (Faculty of Education, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen; jankilian@email.cz)
The “Rebellion” in Nove Strašeci in 1615
, pp. 109–117.
Abstract
The study is based on unpublished sources and the specialized literature and deals with the problem of the “Rebellion” in Nove Strašeci in the year 1615. It analyses the religious situation in Bohemia before the Thirty Years’ War and emancipation efforts of Nové Strašecí in the area of the appointment of the pastors.  
Keywords: Nové Strašecí; Bohemia; Religious Situation; Letter of Majesty

Michal Wanner (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, Milady Horákové 133, 166 21 Praha, michal.wanner@mvcr.cz)
Cape Colony under the Administration of the United East Indian Company 1652–1795. Part II: The Origin of the Cape Identity 1700–1795
, pp. 118–128.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature and deals with the problem of the Cape Colony under the administration of the United East Indian Company. It analyses the problem of the origin of Cape identity in the years 1700–1795 (changes in the society, Cape tradition or the living standard).
Keywords: Cape Colony; the United East Indian Company; the Republic of the Seven United Provinces; Racial Ideology

Marek Šmíd (Faculty of Philosophy, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice; msmid@ff.jcu.cz)
The Czechoslovak-Austrian Relations in the First Czechoslovak Republic
, pp. 128–133.
Abstract
The aim of this study, which is based on unpublished sources and the specialized literature, is the analysis of the relations between the First Czechoslovak Republic and the Austrian Republic in the years 1918–1938. It concludes that the bilateral relations were on good level.
Keywords: First Czechoslovak Republic; Austrian Republic; Interwar Europe; International Relations

Petra Papiežová Vejvodová
The National Socialist Conception of the United Europe – A Comparison of Nazism and Neo-Nazism
, pp. 134–141.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature and analyses the national socialist conception of the United Europe, namely compares Nazism and Neo-Nazism. It concludes that the national socialist conception was a consistent vision in the perception of the united Europe.

Keywords: National Socialist Conception; Nazism; United Europe; Neo-Nazism


Number 7/8


Roman Kodet (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; kodet@khv.zcu.cz)
Unintentional Rebel? The Life of Saigo Takamori and the Satsuma Uprising, pp. 159–171.
Abstract
The article deals with the life and activity of an important Japanese statesman Saigo Takamori. Its author firstly analyses the situation in Japan and the causes of Meiji Revolution and Saigo’s role in these events. In next part of his article he addresses the question of the creation of the new Japanese government and the first reforms of the pro-imperial movement. He stresses that it was Saigo’s unwillingness to pursue too radical reforms and his will to preserve the samurai class by employing it in a planned invasion of Korea, that led to his resignation under the pressure of his government colleagues. The final part of the study assesses the causes and events of the Satsuma Rebellion and tries to answer the question if Saigo planned this uprising or if he was only obliged to follow the course of events.  
Keywords: Japan; Meiji Restoration; Satsuma; 19th Century

Martin Urban (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; M_Urban@outlook.com)
The Pan-German League at the End of 19th Century, pp. 172–177.
Abstract
The Pan-Garman League was established as a pressure group of German nationalists and “defenders of national interests” in the consequence of the release of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty in 1890. Its founder and an important member was Alfred Hugenberg, who managed to gain support and cooperation of existing nationalist and colonial societies in Germany. The Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband) was established owing to the Hugenberg’s activity in 1891. Although, the colonial policy of Germany was its first primary issue, its interest gradually started to shift towards the Central Europe. The membership of the League was comprised not only of university professors, teachers, clergymen, doctors of medicine, office workers or army officers, but also of important politicians or industrialists. The activity of the League was concentrated primarily on the strengthening of German nationalist ideas in the internal politics of German Empire and the support of the spreading of German cultural influence abroad. The league’s core ideology was a conviction of the German nation’s exclusive mission, right and duty to build a strong Central European and colonial power.  To this end, it pursued an aggressive and confident expansionist policy, demanded the broadening of its colonial domination in the world, and promoted the building of a strong navy and other measures which were meant to secure the German Empire a place amongst the great powers of the world. 
Keywords: Pan-Garman League; Germany; Nationalism; 19th Century

Tereza Krček (tereza.krcek@gmail.com)
Expenses of Population and the Index of Cost of Living in Interwar Czechoslovakia, pp. 177–188.
Abstract
The paper shows the distribution of spending on population in interwar Czechoslovakia. It deals with the distribution of population according to profession and shows statistics expenditures by blue-collar families, white-collar families and families of minor officials. The paper shows data on cost of living index and provides a comprehensive analysis by the expenditure of families in the interwar era. The average white-collar family for statistical purposes has the four members and the average total annual expenditures white-collar families was different significantly between higher and lower civil servants and teachers. For statistical purposes was presented the average blue-collar family by five members. A prerequisite for comparing statistics on expenditures blue-collar families and white-collar families are comparable spending to the output converted by the State Statistical Office. Article concludes that the highest spending was showed by white-collar families and lowest by blue-collar families. Expenditures of blue-collar families were different according to the region where the family lived. Blue-collar family spent a considerably smaller share of expenditures on living and much higher proportion on food than the white-collar family. Consumer basket was influenced by the price of food, expenditures for cleaning and shining. These commodities formed always a different weight in the consumer basket. The location, where the employee received wages, was important for the blue-collar family. In the case of white-collar family was crucial the profession of the head of household. Despite the different weights of commodities in the consumer basket, followed cost of living indices by the both families a similar trend.

Keywords: Czechoslovakia; Cost of Living Index; Population; Economy


Number 9/10

Martin Boček (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; bocekm@khv.zcu.cz)
The Path of the Mass Emigration from the Habsburg Monarchy to the United States, pp. 194–201.
Abstract
The study is based on the specialized literature, unpublished and published sources and deals with the mass emigration from the Austria-Hungary to the USA. The mass migration began in approximately 70s of the 19th century until the outbreak of the First World War. It was a time of relative stability in Europe. However, in the time of the local economic crisis has increased the number of emigrants. Austrian laws in this field were very benevolent and the development of maritime transport increased travel options. In overseas was possible to start a new life, and either stay there or return with the money, back to their homeland.
Keywords: Austria-Hungary; Mass Emigration; Maritime Transport; USA

Lukáš Perutka (Tecnologico de Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexiko, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, l.perutka@yahoo.com)
Czech Texans and the American Civil War, pp. 201–211.
Abstract
The paper Czech Texans and the American Civil War recounts the history of the Bohemian and Moravian minority in the wartime United States. It is based on the critical interpretation of memoirs, archive material, and secondary literature. The main goal is to present a complex picture of the Czech Texans community and their reaction to the events of this important struggle. Therefore it covers all strata of their society – intellectuals, soldiers, cotton haulers, farmers, fugitives, women, and children. Another goal was to introduce this topic without the deep-rooted myths that surrounds it. For a long period of time, Czech and American historians approached this theme in an uncritical way. Therefore the Czech Texans were portrayed as abolitionists, supporters of the Union and saboteurs of the Confederate cause. Nevertheless, their attitude towards American Civil War was far more complicated.
Keywords: Czech Emigrants in the USA; Texas; American Civil War; Anthony Michael Dignowity

Jaroslav Valkoun (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, Nám. J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1, jaroslav.valkoun@ff.cuni.cz)
General Gordon and the Mahdist Revolt in Sudan, pp. 212–221.
Abstract

The present paper focuses on the Sudanese life of General Gordon, for whom the Sudan became fatal. In its opening part, the article analyses his time in Egyptian service in the position of the Governor of Equatoria (1874–1877) and consequently, the Governor-General of the whole of the Sudan during the late rule of Khedive Ismail. The fact that the growing Mahdist Revolt, which had caused destabilization of the standing Egyptian administration in the Sudan, could, under certain circumstances, be a threat for Egypt, too, forced British officials in early 1884 to use General Gordon’s services as the Governor-General in Khartoum. However, Gordon’s erroneous assessment of the situation soon led to his isolation from the surrounding areas. The Relief Expeditions sent afterwards did not succeed in saving General Gordon, whose heroic dead passed into legend.
Keywords: Charles George Gordon; Mahdi; British Policy in Sudan; Siege of Khartoum

Jan Kočvar (Military History Institute, Prague; jankocvar@seznam.cz)
Missionaries in China and the „Boxer Uprising“, pp. 221–230.
Abstract
Since early 19th century, the missionaries were penetrating China; they were unwelcomed, but protected by foreign countries. Missionary activities disturbed peace in many areas, especially in the province of Shandong, and contributed to the outbreak of the “Boxer Rebellion” in 1900. During its course, Christians in northern China were a primary target of the “Boxers”, and they paid an enormous price. Finally, the “Boxers” and their supporters were defeated and punished, and Christianity became gradually accepted by the Chinese.
Keywords: China; Qing Dynasty; Missionaries; Monotheism; Boxer Rebellion; 1900

Petr Fischer (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; eric01@students.zcu.cz)
History of the Highway Prague – Pilsen until 1945, pp. 231–238.
Abstract
The main goal of this study is to describe the oldies history of the highway from the Prague to the Pilsen. The first plans were created in the period before the Second World War. These plans were not implement due to the Second World War. The building of the highway started only in the seventies. This highway has title the D5 today.
Keywords: Highway; Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia; Building; Plans


Number 11/12


Michal Zourek (Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Okružní 517/10, 370 01, České Budějovice – GEHIGUE/Instituto Ravignani, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 25 de mayo 221, 2do piso, Buenos Aires, 1002; zourek@centrum.cz)
Relations between Czechoslovakia and Chile in the Period of the Cold War, pp. 242–252.
Abstract
This study analyses the political and economic relations between Czechoslovakia and Chile in the period 1945–1989. The main source of materials consists of documents from Czech archives. During the Cold War, polarized Chilean society perceived the states east of the Iron Curtain as a political and economic alternative for weakening the country´s dependence on the US, but at the same time, as a serious threat whose influence had to be prevented at all costs. The referenced period was therefore marked by turbulent moments, evidenced by the suspension of relations on two occasions, namely in 1947 and 1973. The current analysis of the contacts between Czechoslovakia and Chile will contribute to the hitherto little examined issue of the foreign policy of communist Czechoslovakia. At the same time, the study should help to create an understanding of the complexity of the relations between the Eastern Bloc and Latin America during the Cold War.
Keywords: Cold War; Communist Czechoslovakia; Chile; Soviet Bloc; Salvador Allende; Augusto Pinochet


Aleš Skřivan, st. – Aleš Skřivan, ml. (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Sedláškova 15, 306 14. Plzeň; skrivan2@khv.zcu.cz; alesskrivan@hotmail.com)

The Beginning of Activities of the Company Fried. Krupp in China, pp. 252–263.

Abstract
After the defeat of the Taiping Rebellion developer in China so called Self-Strenghtening Movement led by the high-ranking officials of the Qing regime, which in the past led the Imperial armies against Taipings. This meant besides other things import of modern weapons from the West. This situation brought opportunity for the famous German cannon-producing firm Fried. Krupp, which imported first cannon to China in 1871.This study analyses the first steps of firm Krupp on the Chinese market, evaluates the importance of representation of Krupp in China by the firm Peil, informs about the rivalry with British and French firms and evaluates the importance of building of the modern Chinese war navy for the imports of the firm Krupp.
Keywords: China; Self-Strengthening Movement; Modern
Weapons Import; First Krupp’s Guns in China


Jan Županič (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, Nám. J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1, Jan.Zupanic@ff.cuni.cz)
The Prince and His Dame. Joseph Colloredo-Mannsfeld and Lucy Sophie de Jonquet
, pp. 264–273.
Abstract
Colloredo-Mannsfelds are one of the oldest European noble families. Their family dominions are situated mainly in Czechia and at the beginning of the 20th century covered an area of more than 58,000 hectares. The ruling duke thus belonged to the most affluent aristocrats of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy and it may not come as a surprise that he was also considered a good match. It is no surprise that the marriage of Duke Joseph to a naturalized Englishwoman Lucy Sophia Graham, born de Jonquet, whose origin wasrather mysterious, caused quite a stir that shattered the prestige of the entire family. Their marriage was without a child and finally divorced in 1925.
Keywords: Austria-Hungary; History; Colloredo-Mannsfeld; Aristocracy; Marriage


Andrej Tóth (Jihočeská univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, Filozofická fakulta, Ústav věd o umění a kultuře; Branišovská 31a, 370 05, České Budějovice; atoth@ff.jcu.cz)

Count János Esterházy (1901–1957). A Short Political Biography of a Leading Personality of the Hungarian Minority in the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1930s, pp. 273–284.

Abstract
The goal of the study is to present a short political biographic portrait of one of the leading personalities of the Hungarian minority political scene in the First Czechoslovak Republic in the second half of the 1930s, Count János Esterházy. The core of the study consists primarily in familiarization with the political programme of János Esterházy who first held the post of President of the Land Christian-Socialist Party and later the post of Executive President of the United Hungarian Party. The study analyzes the circumstances of his flying political start in early 1930s and his political programme as the politics of the negativistic national minority, based on the Christian-Socialist ideology. Attention is paid also to his contacts with Edvard Beneš, the second President of the First Republic. The study summarizes in general lines Esterházy’s activities in the political scene of the independent Slovak Republic, as well as his miserable destiny after World War II when he was first carted offto the Soviet GULAG camps and subsequently imprisoned in Czechoslovak prisons where he died in 1957.
Keywords: History; 20th century; Politics; Czechoslovakia; Slovak Republic; Hungarian minority; János Esterházy, Edvard Beneš