Historický obzor

Volume 26, 2015
Number 1/2

Martin Šandera (Philosophical Faculty, University of Hradec Králové; martin.sandera@uhk.cz)
The Brandenburg Bride in Bohemia
, pp. 2−9.

The aim of this study, which is based on published sources and the specialized literature, is the analysis of Brandenburg dynasty and their activity in the Kingdom of Bohemia in the 15th century. It is focused on Ursula of Brandenburg (1450–1508), which was a wife of Henry the Elder of Münsterberg (1448−1498). His father was King of Bohemia George of Kunštát and Poděbrady (1420−1470).
Keywords: Ursula of Brandenburg; Bohemia; 15th Century; House of Hohenzollern

Štěpán Pellar (stepan.pellar@gmail.com)
The Spreading of National Consciousness among the Peasants in Galicia
, pp. 10−18.

The study is based on the specialized literature deals with the problem of Poland national consciousness in the second half of the 19th century. It analyses the problem of the origin of the Galicia peasants and their conclusion of nationality in Austrian part of Poland where it was given a relatively space for the development of national ideas.
Keywords: Poland in 19th Century; Polish Nationality; Galicia; National Consciousness

Marcela Šubrtová (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; Marcelina.s@seznam.cz)
From the Fashoda Crisis to the Entente Cordiale. British-Franch Relations at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries, pp. 18−32.
The article deals with the Fashoda Crisis and the subsequent period of rapprochement between France and Great Britain. The crisis occurred in 1898 during the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa. It was a French expedition to Fashoda and thereby excludes Britain from the Sudan. The Entente Cordiale was an agreement signed in 1904 between Great Britain and France, which saw a significant improvement in British-French relations.
Keywords: Fashoda Crisis; British-French Relations; System of Alliances; Policy

Lukáš Novotný (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen; novoluk@khv.zcu.cz)
To the Problem of Railway Construction in China after the Russo-Japanese War
, pp. 32−39.
The study is based on the analysis of British and German unpublished sources and deals with the railway problem in China in the years 1905–1906 with respect to the British and German interests. The study shows that the British interests were much greater than the German ones and that both countries cooperated with each other.
Keywords: Great Britain; Germany; Railway; China; Trade Interests

Number 3/4

Jiří Kárník (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; karnik.jiri@gmail.com)
First Players of the Great Game
, pp. 50−57.
The study is based on the specialized literature and deals with the problem influence in the Central Asia in the early 19th century. The author analyses the first European surveys in Central Asia. It was essentially a British and Russian espionage in this area and some assessment of options to gain new territories. There is partially described British and Russian colonial rivalry in the second half of the 19th century until the conclusion of the contract in the year 1907.
Keywords: Central Asia; British and Russian Rivalry; City Bukhara; 19th Century

Roman Pazderský (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; pazderskyroman@seznam.cz)
The Importance of Jaroslav Goll for the Development of Czech Historiography
, pp. 57−64.
The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and the author brings us a biography and activities of well-known Czech historian Jaroslav Goll (1846−1929). He was a historian of European importance, and his research far ahead of time. Also, the author tries to explain the concept Goll School and answer the question how it is possible to understand.
Keywords: Jaroslav Goll; Czech Historian; Goll School; Historiography

Eduard Gombár (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; eduard.gombar@ff.cuni.cz)
Italian Libya, 1911−1943
, pp. 64−79.
After the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912), Italy simultaneously turned the three regions into colonies. From 1927 to 1934, the territory was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica, and Italian Tripolitania, run by Italian Governors. The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and the author descriptions of a relatively long period of Italian domination in North Africa, which was concluded during the Second World War in 1943.
Keywords: Italian Libya; Libyan Leader Omar Mukhtar; Italy; Second World War

Marián Sekerák (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague; marian.sekerak@gmail.com)
Holy See and the USA
, pp. 79−87.
The author analyses the historical development of relations between Vatican and the United States of America from the 18th to 20th century. His study is based on the specialized literature and published sources. It is focused on the fact how American politics influenced Vatican and each other. What role religion played during American Presidents decision-making. There is also mention of the activity of individual diplomats.
Keywords: Religion in the USA; Americans Presidents; the Holy See, Policy

Number 5/6

Martin Nejedlý (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; martin.nejedly@ff.cuni.cz)
Lace Decorated Dagger. About Power (powerlessness) of the Paid Medieval Historian (Part IV)
, pp. 98−109.
The study is based on the specialized literature and deals with the problem of literary works from author Georges Chastelleain (1405−1475). He was a Burgundian chronicler and poet. Chastellain’s historical works are valuable for the accurate information they contain. As a poet he was famous among his contemporaries.
Keywords: Georges Chastellain; Chronicle; Burgundy; the Middle Ages

Vojtěch Szajkó – Zdeněk Jirásek (Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava; zdenek.jirasek@fpf.slu.cz; Vojta.Szajko@seznam.cz)
Austrian Army and the Electric Telegraph, 1848−1914
, pp. 110−126.
The study is based on the specialized literature and unpublished and to published sources and deals with the telegraph in Austria and his use in the army. The authors describe the various events that have influenced the development of the European continent (for example the war with Prussia in 1866 or the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1881−1882), and in the context deal with technological progress, which was just telegraph.
Keywords: Telegraph; Austro-Hungarian Army; First World War; 19th Century; 20th Century

Václav Kotrman (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; vaclav.kotrman@epocha.cz)
The Reflection of the Cuban Missile Crisis in the Czechoslovak Press
, pp. 126−132.
The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources, which were press in Czechoslovakia in the immediate time after the outbreak of the Caribbean Crisis. It was a two-week lasting conflict that took place in October 1962. Special attention is being focused on the public press, which was published in Czechoslovakia. It was then clearly under the influence of the Soviet Union and total censorship.
Keywords: Czechoslovak Press; Cuban Missile Crisis; Czechoslovak Socialist Republic; 20th Century

Number 7/8

Filip Binder (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, filip.binder@seznam.cz)
Nobleman in the Country of Historical Revival. British Voyages of Prince John Adolph II Schwarzenberg
, pp. 143−158.
The study is based on the specialized literature and unpublished and published sources and deals with tours the significant Bohemian aristocrat in the United Kingdom. These routes subsequently affected his business interests and build estates in south Bohemia. For example, it is not secret that the appearance of Hluboká Castle was strongly affected by the construction of Windsor Castle. But this is just one of many examples of how the England affected the thinking and action Prince John Adolph II Schwarzenberg.
Keywords: Schwarzenberg; Bohemia; the United Kingdom; Hluboká

Jaroslav Kadlec
Numerus Clausus and the Bench Ghetto
, pp. 158−168.
The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and deals with the Antisemitism in Poland, focused mainly on the university environment. There is described interwar development in Poland and escalating hatred of the Jewish population. These issues also later contributed to the outbreak of the Holocaust on the Jewish population, which was in Poland in large numbers. There is clearly seen that intolerance against Jews, had its roots in the time before Second World War.
Keywords: Jews in Poland; Interwar Period; Universities in Poland; Antisemitism

Vojtěch Halama (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, halama.vojtech@seznam.cz)
Provisional IRA and the First Years of the Conflict in Nothern Ireland (1968−1972)
, pp. 168−179.
The study analyses the rise of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) during the initial phase of the Northern Ireland’s Troubles and focuses on its role in the outbreak of the conflict. Provisional IRA, originally a militant splinter group from the main organisation, gradually and successfully exploited civil unrest in Northern Ireland to revive its traditional armed struggle against British rule in the region. The study also addresses the events of Bloody Sunday, January 1972.
Keywords: IRA; Great Britain; Bloody Sunday; British-Irish relations

Number 9/10

Aleš Skřivan SR. – Aleš Skřian JR. (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen; skrivan2@khv.zcu.cz; alesskrivan@hotmail.com)
China Crisis 1897−1898. Leases and Spheres of Influence
, pp. 194−209.
The study is based on the specialized literature and unpublished and to published sources and deals with the European and the US influence in China at the end of the 19th century. In this time, China was divided into separate spheres of influence, and despite various efforts. China has become a subject for conflicts of the Great Powers.
Keywords: China in 19th Century; Great Powers; Crisis 1897−1898

Karel Staněk (Accenture, Prague; kar.stanek@volny.cz)
The Capture of Ceuta through the Portuguese – the Beginning of the European Overseas Expansion
, pp. 209−218.
The Portuguese Empire was the first global empire in world history. In addition, it was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415. The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories. Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic region in 1418–1419, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology, which were adopted then from other Europeans countries.
Keywords: Portuguese Empire; Ceuta; Overseas Expansion; Spanish Empire

Jana Borodáčová (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; BorodacovaJana@seznam.cz)
British Radical Reform Movement in the Time of French Revolution
, pp. 219−232.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France, which impacted on other Europeans country, also for Great Britain. The French Revolution of 1789 had proved extremely divisive in England, from that of many radicals of the time and was a view more associated with conservative figures, including expressed indifference as to Catholic Emancipation. This study describes the work of British politicians and radical reformists, in this period, and assesses what has been achieved.
Keywords: French Revolution; Radical Reform Movement; John Wilkes; Richard Price; Thomas Paine

Number 11/12

Karolína Kalecká (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague; kalecka.ka@gmail.com)
Transoceanic Missions of the Habsburg Monarchy War Navy
, pp. 242−249.
The study is based on the specialized literature and deals with the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Particular emphasis is placed on the naval force transoceanic missions, as was for example missions ship, named SMS Novara. It became the first Austro-Hungarian warship to circumnavigate the globe; Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria used it for a trip around the world. Austria-Hungary could because of its navy participate in various world conflicts that arose during the 19th century.
Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy; Austro-Hungarian Navy; SMS Novara; 19th Century

Kateřina Brožová
Carion Chronicle and the Interpretation of the History in the Beginning of the Modern Times
, pp. 249−255.
The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and analyses Carion Chronicle and its influence on the Reformation. Johann Carion was a court astrologer of Prince-elector Joachim I Nestor of Brandenburg. A prognostication, which Carion published in 1521, gained the Prince-elector a later reputation of having predicted the Protestant Reformation. Carion’s Chronicles became an important work in Lutheran and more generally Protestant thought.
Keywords: Johann Carion; Reformation; Martin Luther; Philip Melanchthon

Miroslav Šedivý (Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen; MirekSedivy@seznam.cz)
Metternich’s Austria and Italy. Between Myth and Reality
, pp. 255−260.
The study is based on the specialized literature and published sources and on the analysis of Metternich’s attitude to Italy and nationalisms. Austria is possessed of Lombardy and Veneto. The author tries to refute the existing established truth that Austria was only oppressor Italian population on their territories. Such a claim was refuted only by being levelled economic development throughout Italy with the Austrian domains.
Keywords: Metternich; Austria; Italy; Lombardy; Veneto

Michal Zourek (Faculty of Corporate Strategy, Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice; zourek@centrum.cz)
The Relations between Uruguay and Czechoslovakia in Cold War Time
, pp. 271−280.
The aim of this study, which is based on the unpublished sources and specialized literature is the analysis of international relations between Uruguay and Czechoslovakia in the 20th century. Although Uruguay is the smallest Spanish-speaking country in South America, has attracted the attention of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. Czechoslovak diplomats often worked closely with the Soviet and even in times of crisis, substituted their activities. Mutual relations were based mainly on economic cooperation, which was quite extensive.

Keywords: Uruguay; Czechoslovak Economy; Soviet Union; Latin America