Historický obzor

Volume 28, 2017

Number 1/2


Jakub Mazanec (Ustav světovych dějin FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; jakmazanec@gmail.com)
A Dawn of a Reform in the Ottoman Empire – Selim III, Mahmud II and the Way to the Publishing of the Supreme Edict of the Rosehouse (1839)
, pp. 2–15.
Abstract
This article deals with analysis of publication of Gülhane noble decree (3 November 1839) which is an eminent event in the modern history of the Ottoman Empire. Promises of sultan Abdülmecid I contained in this document in fact opened the door for a reform period called tanzimat, which is mostly put between years 1839–1876. This article also focuses on earlier attempts of reorganization and modernization of the empire, especially on reforms of sultan Selim III and sultan Mahmud II. Knowledge of these reforms is necessary for understanding the events of 1839. An important part of this article is formed by analysing circumstances of Gülhane decree origins and the English version of its text.
Keywords
Ottoman Empire; Reform; Reorganization; Selim III; Mahmud II; Abdülmecid I; Mustafa Reshid Pasha; Gülhane Decree; Noble Decree; Tanzimat

Aleš Skřivan st. – Aleš Skřivan ml. (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, skrivan2@khv.zcu.cz; alesskrivan@hotmail.com)
Weapons for the Middle Kingdom. The Company Fried. Krupp at the China Market, 1885–1914
, pp. 15–23.
Abstract
The famous German arms producing firm, Fried. Krupp from Essen, gained in the 1880’s and 1890’s unequivocal predominance as for the import of guns to China. Krupp imported the cannons for the Beiyang fleet, for the mighty fortresses on the Chinese Coast (Port Arthur, Weihaiwei) and for modernised Chinese army. The German experts acted as advisers at many Chinese troops. China in consequence of defeat in the war with Japan (1894–1895) had to pay huge indemnity to Japan. Therefore, Peking could not realize another purchase of modern weapons from Europe. The import of Krupp’s guns sank dramatically in 1897. Another blow to the guns-import meant the Boxer uprising (1899–1900), after defeating of this uprising followed embargo on the import of arms to China. The new development of the activities of the company Krupp began in the year 1906. The Chinese Government presented the unrealized project of the gigantic arsenal for the whole China built by Krupp. Nevertheless, the outbreak of the World War I terminated al activities of the company Fried. Krupp in China.
Keywords
Chinese Import of Arms in the 1880’ and 1890’; Modernizing of Chinese Armed Forces; Russo-Japanese War; Renewal of Krupp Acitivities; Outbreak of the World War I

Martin Král (kral310@seznam.cz)
The Press of the Czech Fascism and the Sudeten German National Socialism, their Look at the Economic Crisis, and its Interpretation, pp. 24–35.
Abstract
The aim of this thesis is to deepen the scientific processing of Czech fascism, especially its press and propaganda activities. The author focused on the prints of Czech fascists from the period of the Great Depression 1929–1935, mainly on the application of linguistic discourse and fascist ideology into the Czechoslovak environment. The work uncovers the personal and financial secure of fascist press. The author compared presentation of economic crisis in the press of Czech Fascism and Sudeten German National Socialism. Both movements used the crisis to anti-democratic rhetoric and used comparable propaganda techniques, but their interpretation of the crisis was diametrically different.
Keywords
Czech Fascism; Great Depression; Sudeten German; Press; First Czechoslovak Republic

Lenka Hrdinová (Ustav světovych dějin FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; lenka.malkova@atlas.cz)
The Czechoslovak Mission of the American Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt. The Activity of the American Diplomat in the Light of Contemporary Czechoslovak Sources
, pp. 35–47.
Abstract
Submitted study portrays actions of ambassador of the United States of America Laurence A. Steinhardt in Czechoslovakia in the years from 1945 to 1948. The author has reconstructed ambassador’s diplomatic work or preferable society in which he liked to spent time. Her theory is supported by old newspapers, diaries of Steinhardt’s peers and archival materials. Due to collected information it is evident that L. Steinhardt was mostly focused on his private affairs since the beginning of his carrier, which meant that in February 1948 he was dismayed by Czechoslovakian crises.
Keywords
Laurence Adolph Steinhardt; Czechoslovakia; 1945–1948; USA; DiplomacyType your paragraph here.


Volume 28, 2017
Number 3/4


Barbora Pásztorová (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, Bbarcca@seznam.cz)
The Influence of the French July Revolution in 1830 on the German Nationalism, pp. 50–59.
Abstract
The aim of this study is the analysis of the influence of the French July Revolution in 1830 on the German nationalism,
especially on its character and activity, but also on the transformation of the social base due to the connection with German liberal and democratic movement or on the shaping of opinions and goals of its leading personalities. Special attention is paid to the Hambacher Fest as the first national mass demonstration in the modern German History. In the thirties, German nationalism was no longer the matter of the small group of students and professors. Lot more people accepted the idea of the German national state. German nationalists and liberals were decided to establish the German Republic with the executive government, based on the sovereignty of the people. Also, France was not the enemy anymore, but the example worthy to follow.
Keywords
German Nationalism; 19th Century; July Revolution; Hambacher Fest; Young Germany; Vienna Conference; 1834


Václav Horčička (Ustav světovych dějin FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; vhorcicka@volny.cz)
The Last Nobleman at Hluboká Castle. Prince Adolph Schwarzenberg, 1890–1950, pp. 59–68.
Abstract
The study is focused on the personality of Prince Adolph Schwarzenberg. It mainly focuses on examining his stance on key political and social matters in the inter-war period. The prince, who was the head of the Swcharzenberg primogeniture as of 1938 was already confronted with the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the creation of the Czechoslovak Republic while he was the hereditary prince. The author shows how these changes affected the interests of the Schwarzenbergs. He analyzes Adolph's political views in relation to this and examines the prince's relationship to the
democratic establishment, political parties and to the land reform, which led to a significant decrease of the family's immovable assets. The author further focuses on Adolph's views on the national question and proves that the prince attempted to maintain a balanced approach to both of the main nationalities within the Czech lands. The author also documents Adolph's critical stance towards Nazism.
Keywords
Schwarzenberg Dynasty; Primogeniture; Prince Adolph; 20th Century


Ivan Jakubec (Ustav hospodářských a sociálních FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; ivan.jakubec@ff. cuni.cz; Katedra hospodářských dějin NF VŠE, Nám. W. Churchilla 4, 130 67, Praha 3; ivan.jakubec@vse.cz)

Patents and Licences as an Expression of the Economic Level of Advancement of the Interwar Czechoslovakia, pp. 68–74.
Abstract
The article is based on examining unpublished und Publisher archival sources as well as on period and contemporary
literature. Czechoslovakia was not standing outside the main stream of innovation transfer/exchange at that time as it not just a passive recipient, addressee of series of innovations. The interest of foreign applicants in obtaining a patent demonstrates the importance of local technical, technological, and economic market. Transfer of innovation was not a one-way process, although there was a tendency practiced by the advanced economies to register patents in Czechoslovakia “to ensure” this space.
Keywords
Czechoslovakia; Transfer of Innovation; Patents


František Emmert (Ústav státu a práva Akademie věd ČR, v. v. i., frantisek.emmert@ilaw.cas.cz)
Czechoslovakia in State of War, pp. 74–79.
Abstract
Czechoslovakia declared war on Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Finland, Romania, and Bulgaria on 16 December 1941 (on Germany and Hungary sins 1938). The way to restoring peace was very complicated. The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic had to decide about a specific date of the start and the end of the war in 1999. The court decided per the principles of international law.
Keywords
Aggression; War; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Japan; Peace Treaty; Principles of International Law


Michal Chocholatý (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, andrzej.k@seznam.cz)
“Gravediggers, the Real and the Most Miserable are there, behind the Embankment.” The Psychological Perception of the Death Sector of Treblinka and Sobibor in Wider “Intercamp” Context, pp. 79–88.
Abstract
The paper attempts to explore the existential situation within the special prisoner groups they oversaw gas chambers area and which participated – against the will of their members – in the realization of the final solution of Jewish question in the Nazi extermination camps. The base of this research is represented by the death camps Sobibor and Treblinka where the death sector with gas chambers meant the foundation-stone and the frame of these camps. The “prisoners’ public opinion” towards the members of the special prisoners groups in Sobibor and Treblinka emerged in a different way on the contrary to the situation in concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, where the prisoners who were pushed to take a part in the gas chambers cleaning and corpses removal were seen unlikely. The very possibility to become a part of the
work groups slavering in the shadow of the Treblinka or Sobibor gas chamber where here more feared than anything else as testified by the prisoners from other camp parts. The paper also attempts to show how the death sectors – as the mystery parts of these Nazi camps – could be perceived by various prisoners' senses. The psychological cognitive perspective is also used as the method for better plastic moulding of the death sectors.
Keywords
Treblinka; Sobibor; Belzec; Auschwitz; Birkenau; Death Camp; Gas Chamber


Volume 28, 2017
Number 5/6


Eva Rašková (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, eraskova@khv.zcu.cz)
The Czech Legionaries at the Italian Front during the First World War, pp. 98–105.

Abstract
The action of the Czech legionaries was one of the main manifestations of the foreign resistance during the First Word War. They wanted to contribute to the disintegration of the Austro-Hungary and establishing the new Czechoslovak state. The legionaries in Italy attained the main successes in the year 1918 (the last year of war). They became the constituent part of the Italian army. They were very successful during the Austro-Hungarian summer offensive at the Piava. The
hundreds of the Czech soldiers fought on the side of Italy. There were also a lot of those, who fought on the side of the imperial army.

Keywords
Czech Legionaries; First World War; Austro-Hungary; Imperial Army; Italy


Marcela Šubrtová (Ustav světovych dějin FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; Marcelina.s@seznam.cz)
The Penetration of European Powers to Morocco in the 19th century: The End of the Sharifian Empire, pp. 105–114.
Abstract
The aim of this study, which is based on the specialized literature, published sources and unpublished sources from the National Archives in London is the analysis of the penetration of European Powers into Morocco in the 19th century. The study pays attention to the British and French interests in Morocco in particular and reveals the history of Morocco before it became the French Protectorate.
Keywords
Morocco; Harry Maclean; European Powers; Entente Cordiale; Agadir


Viktor Janák (janak.viktor@seznam.cz)
Important Milestones of the Kroměříž Jewish Community in 1900–1939
, pp. 114–122.
Abstract
The study tries to bring a comprehensive view of historical development of the Jewish community as a minor part in the town of Kroměříž from its beginning in the early 14th century throughout pogroms of the Thirty Years’ War to the year 1945. The main part examines the situation in the community from the year 1900 throughout the First Czechoslovak Republic in the 1920s and 1930s to the Nazi occupation.
Keywords
Community; Kroměříž; Jews; Synagogue; Holocaust


Miroslav Adamec (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, adamsmir@khv.zcu.cz)
The Diplomatic Background of the so-called May Crisis in 1938, pp. 122–133.
Abstract
The May Crisis of 1938, sometimes called the Weekend Crisis, was a brief episode of international pension caused by report of German troop movements against Czechoslovakia that appeared to signal the imminent outbreak of war in Europe. Although no evidence has emerged o any aggressive German military preparations being made at that time, the outcome of the crisis formed a significant step on the road to the Munich Agreement and the imposed break-up of
Czechoslovakia.
Keywords
Partial Mobilization; Diplomacy; Threat of War; Extraordinary Military Measures; Sudeten German Party


Tereza Jozífková (Katedra hospodařskych dějin, Narodohospodařska fakulta, Vysoka škola ekonomicka, nam. W. Churchilla 1938/4, 130 67 Praha 3 – Žižkov; xjozt00@vse.cz)
The Spanish Economic Miracle in the End of the Franco’s Regime
, pp. 133–143.
Abstract
This study deals with the topic of the so called Spanish economic miracle. It describes vast economic changes which started in the 1960s in Spain. The article offers a political context of Francisco Franco’s dictatorship (1939–1975) and a review of economic development before and during this phenomenon (which is the most discussed). During the 1960s Spain changed not only economically but also politically and socially. The country was leaving corporativist tendencies from 1950s, so called autocrats were more dominant in government and tourism was also evolving. Between 1959 and 1975 we can observe dynamic growth of GDP. Between the beginning of 1960s and 1975, the significance of agriculture
declined and significance of industry and the sector of services increased. The study describes the fact that Spain also gained from general economic prosperity in Western Europe. The economy was in a very bad condition in 1940s and 1950s and that is one of the reasons for such big impact of autocrats’ reforms. It could be said that the reforms contributed to certain extent to a downfall of Francoism in 1975.
Keywords
Spain; Spanish Economic Miracle; Francoism; Corporatism


Volume 28, 2017
Number 7/8


Jana Borodáčová (Ustav světovych dějin FF UK, Naměsti J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; BorodacovaJana@seznam.cz)
The British Radicalism and Political Persecutions in the Period 1792–1794
, pp. 146–161.
Abstract
From the 1760s, the question of parliamentary reform in Britain concerning the amendment and extension of suffrage was an important topic of differing intensity. It was the so-called extra-parliamentary movement which endeavoured to reach its objective by means of petitions. However, the radical reformers of the 1790s who demanded parliamentary reform differed in objectives from their predecessors. The aims of the new reform societies, whose membership consisted mainly of the working class, were annual parliamentary elections and universal suffrage. The British government of the Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, especially under the pressure of events of the French Revolution and for fear of possible insurrection or some domestic conspiracy, legislatively intervened not only against Scottish but also against English radicals. In the 1790s, therefore, the government launched persecution against all supporters of radical reform and revolutionary France.
Keywords
Radicals; Parliamentary Reform; Radical Societies; High Treason; Political Persecution


Šárka Kollerová (Fakulta veřejných politik, Slezská univerzita v Opavě, Bezručovo náměstí 14, 746 01 Opava; sarka.kollerova@gmail.com)
Czechoslovak-Austrian Relations from the End of the First World War until the Signature of the Treaty of Lány, pp. 162–172.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to describe relationships between Czechoslovakia and Austria within years 1918–1921. The first part explains complicated postwar situation and establishment of both examined states. The work is focused mainly on economic and political cooperation of both states, which was formed through bilateral talks and meetings of state representatives. The Austrian political situation will be described on the basis of extant archival documents.
Keywords
Czechoslovakia; Austria; International Relations; Treaty of Lány


Adam Zítek (zitek.adam@email.cz)
“Beetle of Imperialism”. Potato Beetle and Propaganda Campaign in Countries of Eastern Europe, pp. 172–176.
Abstract
Communist propaganda had various forms, probably the most famous and spectacular was campaign related with a potatoe beetle. It does not matter if it was propaganda in Czechoslovakia, Poland, the German Democratic Republic or in the Soviet Union, occurrence of this beetle was always presented like aims of american imperialism and sabotage. Particular atributies of this propagandstic campaign in the mentioned countries is a content of this paper.
Keywords

Communist Propaganda; Czechoslovakia; Poland; German Democratic Republic; Soviet Union; Potatoe Beetle; Colorado Beetle


Jana Křivancová (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14; krivanco@khv.zcu.cz)
The Monetary Reform in Plzeň. The Workers’ Revolt in 1953, pp. 176–187.
Abstract
The article deals with the Pilsen revolt made in June 1953, events on the background of government measures, the third monetary reforms within Czechoslovakia. The article mapping the course of Pilsen revolts as an expression of criticism grudge not only against the government radical measures but alone government and result of there has been a devaluation of the currency and savings Czechoslovak population. Article was prepared on the basis of unpublished sources, contemporary periodicals, available literature, memories of witnesses – direct participants Pilsen Workers’ revolt.
Keywords
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; Currency; Economy; Pilsen; Revolt


Volume 28, 2017
Number 9/10


Roman Kodet (Katedra historických věd, Fakulta filozofická, Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, Sedláčkova 31, Plzeň, 306 14; kodet@khv.zcu.cz)
Dragon of Echigo and Tiger of Kai. The Samurai Warlord Rivalry in the Sengoku Period
, pp. 194–202.
Abstract
The Sengoku Period (1467–1603) was an age of a bloody conflict in feudal Japan. The great lords called the daimyo turned against each other utilizing the weakness of the central government represented by the declining Ashikaga Shogunate. Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin were one of the most notable among them. Their rivalry culminating in the five battles of Kawanakajima became a legend of the samurai military history. This is not only because of their
capabilities as generals but also due to their ability to govern and reform their domains. Also, their different and colorful character added to the fact, that they are well remembered even today. The modern Japanese commemorate the events of their life thanks to many books, movies, TV series and comic books. There are also several notable festivals dedicated to their memory.
Keywords
Japan; Sengoku Period; Daimyo; Military History; War; 16th Century


Lukáš Vokřínek (Lukas.Vokrinek@seznam.cz)
The French-Swedish Campaign against Bavaria and Truce of Ulm (1646/1647) I. Part, pp. 202–210.
Abstract
The aim of the French-Swedish campaign from 1646 against Electorate of Bavaria, the most important ally of the Holy Roman Emperor, was to support the positions in the Westphalian peace negotiations at the end of the Thirty Years‘ War. Paradoxically, however, France wasn´t very willing to fight. Nor did it come to a greater clash, but the movements of the armies greatly affected the country. The dissatisfaction of the Bavarian Elector Maximilian I with the imperial warfare,
political and other reasons caused the discord in Bavarian-imperial relations. The result was the Bavarian conclusion of the separate armistice from Ulm with enemies on 14 March 1647. After twenty-eight years, Maximilian seceded from the Emperor. In September, however, he revoked a mentioned treaty and started a new military cooperation with him. The conclusion is that the campaign confirms a mechanical fighting character of the late phase of the Thirty Years‘ War, while Elector demonstrated that he can be active politically. Bavaria, however, remained the secondary power.
Keywords
Thirty Years’ War; Holy Roman Empire; Bavaria; Maximilian I; French-Swedish Campaign against Bavaria; Truce of Ulm


Jaroslav Valkoun (Ústav světových dějin, Filozofická fakulta UK, Nám. J. Palacha 2, 116 38, Praha 1; jaroslav.valkoun@ff.cuni.cz)
The Dominions and the Constitutional Question within the British Empire in the 1920s
, pp. 211–220.
Abstract
The present article focuses on the attitudes of the Dominions to the institutional and constitutional matters of the British Empire between the years 1917–1926. The article analyzes the development of the question throughout a series of important events, starting from the War Imperial Conference of 1917 and the Paris peace talks in which the Dominions
took a considerable part, through the completion of the Smuts Memorandum from 1921 and the subsequent events such as the Chanak Crisis, the Halibut Treaty, Lausanne and Locarno which affected considerably the relations between the Dominions and Great Britain, completing the view with a spotlight on the Balfour Declaration, adopted at the 1926 Imperial Conference.
Keywords
The British Empire; Dominions; Imperial Conferences; Constitutional Questions; Institutional Questions


Marek Šmíd (Historický ústav FF JU v Českých Budějovicích, Branišovská 31a, 370 05 České Budějovice; smidma@seznam.cz)
Diplomatic Relations of the Holy See and Germany between the Wars, pp. 220–228.
Abstract
The study deals with the diplomatic relations of the Holy See and Germany in the years 1918–1939. They are analysed at the background of events of 1920s and 1930s during the Weimar Republic and Third Reich. Emphasizing the Vatican archives, they concern the reports of the apostolic nuncios of Munich and Berlin to Rome, which described the changing politico-religious relations and the country’s approaching to totalitarianism in the 1930th in full details. It primarily
reflects the Nazism ideology and its leading personality of Adolf Hitler in the interwar period since the early 1920s already reveal vast differences in both directions, Nazism, and Catholicism.
Keywords
Diplomatic Relations; Vatican; Germany; 1918–1939; Pius XI; Eugenio Pacelli; Adolf Hitler


Klára Fabianková (Katedra hospodářských dějin Národohospodářské fakulty Vysoké školy ekonomické v Praze, Nám. Winstona Churchilla 4, 130 67, Praha 3, klara.fabiankova@vse.cz)
The German Occupation Regime in 1941–1944 on the Real Results of Agricultural Policy on the Territory of the Reich Commissariat Ukraine, pp. 229–238.
Abstract
The study points out the influence of Nazi ideology on the real results of agricultural policy on the territory of the Reich Commissariat Ukraine. It defines selected Hitler‘s goals and plans in the Soviet occupied territory, focusing on the analysis of the economic importance of Ukraine. It generally characterizes the applied occupational concept to show its inefficiency and the need to revise the concept on the example of agricultural policy. It aims at agricultural policy measures targeted at boosting productivity in the agricultural sector in the Reich Commissariat Ukraine, such as the
approval of the New Agricultural Order. The expected contribution from the point of view of the economic-strategic occupation of the Ukrainian territory did not come. Despite the massive propaganda and efforts of the representatives of the occupation administration in Ukraine to achieve higher productivity in the agrarian sector, the economic results of the agricultural measures remained behind expectations. The effectiveness of the occupation policy and the fulfillment of the goals set in the agricultural sector was complicated, in addition to collaboration, by corruption, guerrilla activities,
and the problematic organization and coordination of the occupation administration in Ukraine. In the long term, Nazis preferred colonial methods without greater willingness or opportunity to invest the necessary funds. The outcome was also affected by developments on the front and the economic situation of the Third Reich. Agricultural resources from Ukraine helped the Nazi economy to prolong wartime conflict only in the short term. The study indirectly proves that
occupation of Western Europe provided greater benefits for Nazi Germany.
Keywords
Agricultural Policy; Reich Commissariat Ukraine; Nazism; Occupation Regime


Volume 28, 2017
Number 11/12


Miroslav Šedivý (Katedra historickych věd, FF, ZČU v Plzni, Sedlačkova 31, 306 14, Plzeň, MirekSedivy@seznam.cz)
Salt, Wine, and War: A Contribution to the History of the Risorgimento, 1846–1848
, pp. 242–247.
Abstract
The aim of the article is to reveal various Risorgimento’s myths connected with Austria’s presence in Italy during the Pre-March Period on the example of her salt-wine quarrel with Piedmont from 1846 to 1848. As it is explained, the one-sided negative evaluation of Austrian proceeding in this affair is no more tenable.
Keywords
Austria; Piedmont; Risorgimento; Salt; Wine; War

Lukáš Vokřínek (Lukas.Vokrinek@seznam.cz)
The French-Swedish Campaign against Bavaria and Truce of Ulm (1646/1647) II. Part
, pp. 247–256.
Abstract
The aim of the French-Swedish campaign from 1646 against Electorate of Bavaria, the most important ally of the Holy Roman Emperor, was to support the positions in the Westphalian peace negotiations at the end of the Thirty Years‘ War. Paradoxically, however, France wasn´t very willing to fight. Nor did it come to a greater clash, but the movements of the armies greatly affected the country. The dissatisfaction of the Bavarian Elector Maximilian I with the imperial warfare, political and other reasons caused the discord in Bavarian-imperial relations. The result was the Bavarian conclusion of the separate armistice from Ulm with enemies on 14 March 1647. After twenty-eight years, Maximilian seceded from the Emperor. In September, however, he revoked a mentioned treaty and started a new military cooperation with him. The conclusion is that the campaign confirms a mechanical fighting character of the late phase of the Thirty Years‘ War, while Elector demonstrated that he can be active politically. Bavaria, however, remained the secondary power.
Keywords
Thirty Years’ War; Holy Roman Empire; Bavaria; Maximilian I; French-Swedish Campaign against Bavaria; Truce of Ulm

Jakub Drábek – Andrej Tóth (Vysoká škola ekonomická, Národohospodářská fakulta, Katedra hos-
podářských dějin, jakub.drabek@vse.cz; andrej.toth@vse.cz)
To the Development of the Sugar Industry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the Interwar Period
, pp. 256–264.
Abstract
The aim of the article is to summarize the development of the sugar industry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the interwar period. The authors are focusing also on crucial problems of the sugar industry with great potential to destabilize the national economy. The first half of the twenties marked the improvement of the economic situation, in both countries, but in the next period the sugar industry had to cope with the drop in sugar price and the rise in competition that has culminated in the global economic crisis of the early 1930s by signing international agreements. Due to the reasons described above, the importance of sugar industry has begun to decline in the 1930s both in Czechoslovak Republic and in Kingdom of Hungary.
Keywords
Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Economy; Sugar Industry, Production; International Trade

František Emmert (Katedra dějin státu a práva, Právnická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity v brně, Veveří 158/70, 611 80, Brno-střed, emmert@emmert.cz)
The Treaty of Naturalization between the United States and Czechoslovakia from the year 1928: its Purpose, Use, and Termination
, pp. 264–268.
Abstract
The Treaty of Naturalizationbetween the United States and Czechoslovakia was concluded at the U.S. initiative and is one of 26 such treaties concluded by the U.S. in 1928. The Czechoslovakia entered into the treaty in order to, inter alia, prevent its nationals from temporarily emigrating to the United States in order to avoid military duty. The Czech government then agreed to terminate the Treaty upon exchange of diplomatic notes in 1997. The text summarizes relevant historical aspects of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations, beginning with the 1928 Treaty on Naturalization and following with the problematic post-World War II Czechoslovak period. A special theme is article III of the Treaty on Naturalization provides that Nationals of either country who are naturalized while their country of origin is at war, however, do not lose their original nationality.
Keywords
Citizenship; Czechoslovakia; Treaty; Nationality; Naturalization; United States

Miroslav Tejchman (miroslav.tejchman@seznam.cz)
Transfers, Voluntary and Non-voluntary Exchange of Population in the Balkan Peninsula during the Second World War and in the Second Half of the 20th Century
, pp. 268–276.
Abstract
For four centuries the Balkan Peninsula was dominated by the Osman imperium. After so call Great Eastern Crisis in seventies (19th century) the Berlin Congress confirmed independence of national states – Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania and the autonomy of Bulgaria. These new national states strived for the transfer of non-Slavonic, non-Greece and non-Rumanian people. New waves of transfers, voluntary and non-voluntary exchange of population, followed after the two Balkan wars and after the First World War. These transfers started again during the Second World War and continued in the post- war era. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia in nineties (20th century) there had started a next wave of transfers.
Keywords
Balkan; Ethnical Cleansing; Exchange of Population; Genocide; Refugees

Nela Štorková (Katedra antropologie FF ZČU v Plzni, Sedláčkova 15, Plzeň 306 14, nelav@ksa.zcu.cz)
Czechoslovak-German Relations in the Years 1945–1989 with the Emphasis on the Expellee’s Associations
, pp. 276–286.
Abstract
The Second World War and the post-war evacuation of the Germans left an underlying turning point on the relationships between Czechoslovakia and Germany. Sudeten Germans relocated from the Czech countries were forced to deal with their new and difficult role in a new land destroyed by war. That is the reason expellee’s associations whose goal was to defend and support the interests of the residents of the Sudetenland started to emerge in Germany. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the role of the expellee’s associations within the frame of the formation of Czech-German relationships. The basic requirements of the expellee’s associations on the Czechoslovakia while taking the post-war evacuation of the Germans into account are analysed. The next goal of the thesis is to highlight the basic mile stones in the development of Czech-German relationships. The study therefore attempts to deepen the studies of Czech-German relationships especially from the position of their reflection of Sudeten German organisations.
Keywords

Czech-German Relations; Sudeten Germans; Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft